Westminster Shorter Catechism – Question 18

What man is to believe concerning God

Question: Wherein consists the sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?

Answer: The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam’ s first sin, the want of original righteousness, and the corruption of his whole nature, which is commonly called Original Sin; together with all actual transgressions which proceed from it. (Rom. 5:12,19Rom. 5:10–20Eph. 2:1–3James 1:14–15Matt. 15:19)

Scripture Support

Rom. 5:10 For if while we were aenemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved 1bby His life.

Rom. 5:11 aAnd not only this, 1but we also boast in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received bthe reconciliation.

The Gift of Righteousness in Christ

Rom. 5:12 ¶ Therefore, just as through aone man sin entered into the world, and bdeath through sin, and cso death spread to all men, because all sinned—

Rom. 5:13 for 1until the Law sin was in the world, but asin is not imputed when there is no law.

Rom. 5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned ain the likeness of the trespass of Adam, who is a 1btype of Him who was to come.

Rom. 5:15 ¶ But 1the gracious gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of athe one bthe many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by cthe grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many.

Rom. 5:16 And the gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned; for on the one hand athe judgment arose from one transgression 1resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand the gracious gift arose from many transgressions 2resulting in justification.

Rom. 5:17 For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned athrough the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will breign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.

Rom. 5:18 ¶ So then as through aone transgression 1there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one bact of righteousness 2there resulted cjustification of life to all men.

Rom. 5:19 For as through the one man’s disobedience athe many bwere appointed sinners, even so through cthe obedience of the One dthe many will be appointed righteous.

Rom. 5:20 Now 1athe Law came in so that the transgression would increase, but where sin increased, bgrace abounded all the more,

Eph. 2:1 ¶ And you 1were adead 2in your transgressions and sins,

Eph. 2:2 in which you aformerly walked according to the 1course of bthis world, according to cthe ruler of the power of the air, the spirit that is now working in dthe sons of disobedience,

Eph. 2:3 among whom we all also aformerly conducted ourselves in bthe lusts of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the 1mind, and were cby nature dchildren of wrath, eeven as the rest.

James 1:14 But each one is tempted when he is carried away and enticed by his own lust.

James 1:15 Then awhen lust has conceived, it gives birth to sin, and when bsin is fully matured, it brings forth death.

Matt. 15:19aFor out of the heart come evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, sexual immoralities, thefts, false witness, slanders.

Note: Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture support comes from the Legacy Standard Bible in Accordance.


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